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Posts from the ‘Retirement’ Category

13
Nov

IRA and Retirement Plan Limits for 2020

IRA contribution limits

The maximum amount you can contribute to a traditional IRA or a Roth IRA in 2020 is $6,000 (or 100% of your earned income, if less), unchanged from 2019. The maximum catch-up contribution for those age 50 or older remains at $1,000. You can contribute to both a traditional IRA and a Roth IRA in 2020, but your total contributions can’t exceed these annual limits.

Traditional IRA income limits

If you are not covered by an employer retirement plan, your contributions to a traditional IRA are generally fully tax deductible. For those who are covered by an employer plan, the income limits for determining the deductibility of traditional IRA contributions in 2020 have increased. If your filing status is single or head of household, you can fully deduct your IRA contribution up to $6,000 ($7,000 if you are age 50 or older) in 2020 if your modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) is $65,000 or less (up from $64,000 in 2019). If you’re married and filing a joint return, you can fully deduct up to $6,000 ($7,000 if you are age 50 or older) in 2020 if your MAGI is $104,000 or less (up from $103,000 in 2019).

If your 2020 federal income tax filing status is Single or head of household your IRA deduction is limited if your MAGI is between $65,000 and $75,000 and the deduction is eliminated if your MAGI is $75,000 or more.

If your 2020 federal income tax filing status is Married filing jointly or a qualifying widow/widower your IRA deduction is limited if your combined MAGI is between $104,000 and $124,000 and the deduction is eliminated if your MAGI is $124,000 or more.

If your 2020 federal income tax filing status is Married filing separately your IRA deduction is limited if your MAGI is between $0 and $10,000 and the deduction is eliminated if your MAGI is $10,000 or more.

If you’re not covered by an employer plan but your spouse is, and you file a joint return, your deduction is limited if your MAGI is $196,000 to $206,000 (up from $193,000 to $203,000 in 2019), and eliminated if your MAGI exceeds $206,000 (up from $203,000 in 2019).

Roth IRA income limits

The income limits for determining how much you can contribute to a Roth IRA have also increased for 2020. If your filing status is single or head of household, you can contribute the full $6,000 ($7,000 if you are age 50 or older) to a Roth IRA if your MAGI is $124,000 or less (up from $122,000 in 2019). And if you’re married and filing a joint return, you can make a full contribution if your MAGI is $196,000 or less (up from $193,000 in 2019). (Again, contributions can’t exceed 100% of your earn0 but under $139,000ed income.)

If your 2020 federal income tax filing status is Single or head of household your Roth IRA contribution is limited if your MAGI is more than $124,000 but under $139,000 and you cannot contribute to a Roth IRA if your MAGI is $139,000 or more.

If your 2020 federal income tax filing status is Married filing jointly or a qualifying widow/widower your Roth IRA contribution is limited if your combined MAGI is more than $196,000 but under $206,000 and you cannot contribute to a Roth IRA if your combined MAGI is $206,000 or more.

If your 2020 federal income tax filing status is Married filing separately your Roth IRA contribution is limited if your MAGI is more than $0 but under $10,000 and you cannot contribute to a Roth IRA if your MAGI is $10,000 or more.

Employer retirement plans

Most of the significant employer retirement plan limits for 2020 have also increased. The maximum amount you can contribute (your “elective deferrals“) to a 401(k) plan is $19,500 in 2020 (up from $19,000 in 2019). This limit also applies to 403(b) and 457(b) plans, as well as the Federal Thrift Plan. If you’re age 50 or older, you can also make catch-up contributions of up to $6,500 to these plans in 2020 (up from $6,000 in 2019). (Special catch-up limits apply to certain participants in 403(b) and 457(b) plans.)

If you participate in more than one retirement plan, your total elective deferrals can’t exceed the annual limit ($19,500 in 2020 plus any applicable catch-up contributions). Deferrals to 401(k) plans, 403(b) plans, and SIMPLE plans are included in this aggregate limit, but deferrals to Section 457(b) plans are not. For example, if you participate in both a 403(b) plan and a 457(b) plan, you can defer the full dollar limit to each plan — a total of $39,000 in 2020 (plus any catch-up contributions).

The amount you can contribute to a SIMPLE IRA or SIMPLE 401(k) is $13,500 in 2020 (up from $13,000 in 2019), and the catch-up limit for those age 50 or older remains at $3,000.

The annual dollar limit for 401(k), 403(b), government 457(b) or a Federal Thrift Plan is $19,500 and the catch-up limit is $6,500.

The annual dollar limit for SIMPLE plans is $13,500 and the catch-up limit is $3,000.

Note: Contributions can’t exceed 100% of your income.

The maximum amount that can be allocated to your account in a defined contribution plan (for example, a 401(k) plan or profit-sharing plan) in 2020 is $57,000 (up from $56,000 in 2019) plus age 50 catch-up contributions. (This includes both your contributions and your employer’s contributions. Special rules apply if your employer sponsors more than one retirement plan.)

Finally, the maximum amount of compensation that can be taken into account in determining benefits for most plans in 2020 is $285,000 (up from $280,000 in 2019), and the dollar threshold for determining highly compensated employees (when 2020 is the look-back year) is $130,000 (up from $125,000 when 2019 is the look-back year).

6
Jul

Qualified Charitable Distributions (QCD)

Changes in tax laws can require updating your planning.

The 2017 tax act has caused many to rethink their charitable giving. Charitable contributions for those over the age of 70.5 may benefit them by making their charitable contributions directly from their Individual Retirement Accounts (IRA).  These QCDs are treated as part of the Required Minimum Distribution (RMD) for the year they are distributed, but are not taxed.

You must be at least 70.5 when you make the contribution.

The contribution must be made from a traditional IRA. Payment from other retirement accounts do not qualify.

The payments must be to a public charity.

The maximum annual amount cannot exceed $100,000. There is no limit on the number of distributions or charities you make contributions to.

The distribution must be made directly from your IRA account to the charitable organization.

You may not receive benefits in exchange for the contribution. Examples include tickets to paid events and preferential seating.

The distribution must be part of your RMD. Amounts contributed after you have withdrawn your RMD do not qualify as QCD.  If you have already taken your annual RMD for the year, you cannot make a QCD for the year. Plan the timing of your QCD before you have taken your RMDs for the year. Distribute your QCDs early in the year before you have withdrawn all your RMDs for the year.

Include a cover letter specifying the payment is a QCD and request an acknowledgement.

The foregoing is provided for information purposes only.  It is not intended or designed to provide legal, accounting, tax, investment or other professional advice.  Such advice requires consideration of individual circumstances.  Before any action is taken based upon this information, it is essential that competent individual professional advice be obtained.  JAS Financial Services, LLC is not responsible for any modifications made to this material, or for the accuracy of information provided by other sources. 

9
Dec

Prioritizing Savings for College and/or Retirement

The November 2018 AAII Journal, American Association of Individual Investors, included an interview with Harold Pollack. The discussion was about “The Index Card: Why Personal Finance Doesn’t Have to Be Complicated” (Portfolio, 2016). He wrote it with Helaine Olen.

The following passage is from a response to a question about prioritizing where to direct money.

There are different ways that people can do this. You should match your method with what gives you the mojo to actually do it.” … “Suppose I’m a young parent and I’m choosing between prioritizing my retirement and savings for my kid’s college. Mathematically, retirement tends to be the answer for most people, but your kid’s college gives you mojo in a different way. If you’re walking with your seven-year-old daughter in a store and you see a sweet $500 camera lens, you can point to it, and tell your daughter: “I really want that lens, I’m going to put that $500 toward paying for your college. Maybe some day you’ll do that for your daughter.’ That’s powerful and motivating.”  

2018 Nov.Beyond-the-Index-Card-Implement

 

6
Nov

2019 retirement account limits announced by IRS

The limit on 401(k) contribution are increased to $19,000, $25,000 for those that are are 50 or older.

The limit on IRA contribution are increased to $6,000, $7,000 for those that are 50 or older.

IRA Adjusted Gross Income deduction phase- will start at $103,000 fir joint returns and $64,000 for single and head of household filers.

IRS Link: COLA Increases for Dollar Limitations on Benefits and Contributions

The above apply for contributions made for 2019 not for 2018 contributions made in 2019

16
May

Six Steps to Consider Before Tapping Your Retirement Savings Plan

You’ve worked long and hard for years, saving diligently through your employer-sponsored retirement savings plan. Now, with retirement on the horizon, it’s time to begin thinking about how to tap your plan assets for income. But hold on, not so fast. You may need to take a few steps first.

Step 1: Evaluate your needs
The first step in any retirement income plan is to estimate how much income you’ll need to meet your desired lifestyle. The conventional guidance is to plan on needing anywhere from 70% to 100% of your pre-retirement income each year during retirement; however, your amount will depend on your unique circumstances. While some expenses may fall in retirement, others may rise. So before even thinking about how to tap your plan assets, you should have a concrete idea of how much you’ll need to (1) cover your basic needs and (2) live comfortably, according to your wishes.

First, estimate your non-negotiable fixed needs — such as housing, food, and medical care. This will help you project how much you’ll need just to make ends meet. Then focus on your variable wants — including travel, leisure, and entertainment. This is the area that you’ll have the easiest time adjusting, if necessary, as you refine your income plan.

Step 2: Assess your sources of predictable income
Next, you’ll want to determine how much to expect from sources of predictable income, such as Social Security and traditional pension plans. These could be considered the foundation of your retirement income.

Social Security
A key decision regarding Social Security is when to claim benefits. Although you can begin receiving benefits as early as age 62, the longer you wait to begin (up to age 70), the more you’ll receive each month.

The Social Security Administration (SSA) calculates your retirement benefit using a formula that takes into account your 35 highest earning years, so if you had some years of no or low earnings, your benefit amount may be lower than if you had worked steadily.

You can estimate your retirement benefit by using the calculators on the SSA website, https://www.ssa.gov . You can also sign up for a my Social Security account so that you can view your Social Security Statement online. Your statement contains a detailed record of your earnings, as well as estimates of retirement, survivor, and disability benefits, along with other information about Social Security.

Pensions
Traditional pensions have been disappearing from employer benefit programs over the past couple of decades. If you’re one of the lucky workers who stand to receive a pension benefit, congratulations! But be aware of your pension’s features. For example, will your benefit remain steady throughout retirement or increase with inflation?

Your pension will most likely be offered as either a single or joint and survivor annuity. A single annuity provides benefits until the worker’s death, while a joint and survivor annuity generally provides reduced benefits until the survivor’s death.1

Step 3: Reflect
If it looks as though your Social Security and pension income will be enough to cover your fixed needs, you may be well positioned to use your retirement savings plan assets to fund the extra wants. On the other hand, if those sources are not sufficient to cover your fixed needs, you’ll need to think carefully about how to tap your retirement savings plan assets, as they will be a necessary component of your income.

Step 4: Understand your plan options
Upon leaving your employer, you typically have four options:

1. Plans may allow you to leave the money alone or may require that you begin taking distributions once you reach the plan’s normal retirement age.

2. You may choose to withdraw the money, either as a lump sum or a series of substantially equal periodic payments for the rest of your life, or you might use other withdrawal options offered by your plan. Note that the Government Accountability Office (GAO) found that only third of 401(k) plans offer other withdrawal options, such as installment payments, systematic withdrawals, and managed payout funds.

3. You may roll the money into an IRA. You’ll want to carefully compare the investment options, fees, and expenses of both your current plan and the IRA before making any rollover decision.

4. If you continue to work during your retirement years, you may be able to roll the money into your new employer’s plan, if that plan allows. Again, be sure to compare plans before making any decisions.

An annuity is an insurance contract designed to provide steady income over a set period of time or over either your lifetime or that of you and your spouse. According to the GAO, only about 25% of 401(k) plans offer an annuity option as a plan feature. If you think an annuity may apply to your situation, check to see if it is available in your plan. You may want to consider rolling at least some of your tax-deferred money into an IRA and purchasing an immediate fixed annuity. As noted above, however, you’ll want to carefully compare fees and expenses associated with all options before making any final decisions.3

Step 5: Compare tax deferred and tax-free
If you have both tax-deferred and tax-free (Roth) accounts, consider that the taxable portion of distributions from tax-deferred accounts will be taxed at your current income tax rate, while qualified withdrawals from Roth accounts are tax-free. For this reason, general guidelines often suggest tapping tax-deferred accounts before Roth accounts to allow those accounts to continue potentially growing free of taxes.

Note that all assets in employer-sponsored retirement savings plans — even money held in Roth accounts — will be subject to required minimum distributions (RMDs). These rules state that minimum distributions generally must begin in the year you turn age 70½; however, you may delay your first distribution up to April 1 of the following year.

Roth IRAs, however, are not subject to RMD rules until after your death. This is just one reason you might consider converting your employer-sponsored retirement assets to a Roth IRA. Keep in mind that a conversion will trigger an immediate tax consequence on the taxable portion of the converted assets, which can result in a hefty bill from Uncle Sam.

Step 6: Seek professional assistance
Determining the appropriate way to tap your assets can be challenging and should take into account a number of factors. These include not only your tax situation, but also whether you have other assets you’ll use for income, your overall health, and your estate plan. A financial professional can help make sense of your options in light of your unique situation.

1 Current federal law requires employer-sponsored plan participants to select a joint and survivor annuity unless the spouse waives those rights. This requirement is not mandated in an IRA, however.

2
“401(k) Plans: DOL Could Take Steps to Improve Retirement Income Options for Plan Participants,” GAO Report to Congressional Requesters, August 2016

3 Generally, annuity contracts have fees and expenses, limitations, exclusions, holding periods, termination provisions, and terms for keeping the annuity in force. Most annuities have surrender charges that are assessed if the contract owner surrenders the annuity in the early years of the contract. Qualified annuities are typically purchased with pre-tax money, so withdrawals are fully taxed as ordinary income. Withdrawals prior to age 59½ may be subject to a 10% federal income tax penalty. Any guarantees are contingent on the financial strength and claims-paying ability of the issuing insurance company. It is important to understand that purchasing an annuity in an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement plan provides no additional tax benefits other than those available through the tax-deferred retirement plan.

The foregoing is provided for information purposes only.  It is not intended or designed to provide legal, accounting, tax, investment or other professional advice.  Such advice requires consideration of individual circumstances.  Before any action is taken based upon this information, it is essential that competent, individual, professional advice be obtained.  JAS Financial Services, LLC is not responsible for any modifications made to this material, or for the accuracy of information provided by other sources.

22
Feb

Highlights from various articles of note

Target Date Funds:
An article by John Sullivan in the inaugural issue of “401k Specialist” discussed Target Date Funds (TDF).  The article is based on a panel discussion at the 2015 Morningstar Investment Conference.   Initially these funds were disappointing.  One area of concern related to asset-class diversification. The question was not just about the ratio of stocks to bonds.  The portion in domestic, foreign and alternative investments was also a concern.  Another area requiring improvement was how the mix of assets changed over time and during retirement.

TDFs have improved since their introduction. Three companies account for 70% of the assets in these funds.  At one point they accounted for 80%.  Only one firm had funds (3) in the highest 10 performing funds.  The other top performing TDF’s were from 2 other firms.

The greatest benefits of TDFs from my viewpoint is the improvement in investor behavior.   “Investors are using them well.  They don’t exhibit the typical behaviors of fear and greed with target date funds, and as a result stay the course and remain invested longer.”

Not all TDFs are the same.  You want one that is consistent with your situation and your plan.

Retirement Planning Calculators:
This is the subject of a Wall Street Journal article, “New Study Questions Retirement Planning Calculators’ Accuracy.” This article was update online Feb. 22, 2016.

The article discusses an academic study of 36 retirement planning calculators.  “… ‘in most cases, the available offerings are extremely misleading ‘ and generally not helpful to consumers trying to figure out if they will have enough money to cover their expenses for the rest of their lives.”

The study was based on “… a hypothetical couple in their late 50s earning $50,000 each and aiming to retire at ages 65 and 63.”  The calculators were described as “…free and low-cost…” The cause of the misleading results was the limited amount of information used by the calculators.

“…the researchers identified a list of more than 20 factors they believe should be included…”

Do not use the simplest calculator available.  Pick one that has many questions.  Also review the assumptions they are using.  All calculators are use assumptions.  Some assumptions to all calculators are: life expectancy, health, inflation rates, investment returns.  Other questions would include the amount of your current investments and amounts you are currently savings.

9
Feb

There’s Still Time to Contribute to an IRA for 2015

There’s still time to make a regular IRA contribution for 2015! You have until your tax return due date (not including extensions) to contribute up to $5,500 for 2015 ($6,500 if you were age 50 by December 31, 2015). For most taxpayers, the contribution deadline for 2015 is April 18, 2016 (April 19, 2016, if you live in Maine or Massachusetts).

You can contribute to a traditional IRA, a Roth IRA, or both, as long as your total contributions don’t exceed the annual limit (or, if less, 100% of your earned income). You may also be able to contribute to an IRA for your spouse for 2015, even if your spouse didn’t have any 2015 income.

Traditional IRA   

You can contribute to a traditional IRA for 2015 if you had taxable compensation and you were not age 70½ by December 31, 2015.

However, if you or your spouse was covered by an employer-sponsored retirement plan in 2015, then your ability to deduct your contributions may be limited or eliminated depending on your filing status and your modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) (see table below). Even if you can’t deduct your traditional IRA contribution, you can always make nondeductible (after-tax) contributions to a traditional IRA, regardless of your income level. However, in most cases, if you’re eligible, you’ll be better off contributing to a Roth IRA instead of making nondeductible contributions to a traditional IRA.

2015 income phaseout ranges for determining deductibility of traditional IRA contributions:
1. Covered by an employer-sponsored plan and filing as: Your IRA deduction is reduced if your MAGI is: Your IRA deduction is eliminated if your MAGI is:
Single/Head of household $61,000 to $71,000 $71,000 or more
Married filing jointly $98,000 to $118,000 $118,000 or more
Married filing separately $0 to $10,000 $10,000 or more
2. Not covered by an employer-sponsored retirement plan, but filing joint return with a spouse who is covered by a plan $183,000 to $193,000 $193,000 or more


Roth IRA

You can contribute to a Roth IRA if your MAGI is within certain dollar limits (even if you’re 70½ or older). For 2015, if you file your federal tax return as single or head of household, you can make a full Roth contribution if your income is $116,000 or less. Your maximum contribution is phased out if your income is between $116,000 and $131,000, and you can’t contribute at all if your income is $131,000 or more. Similarly, if you’re married and file a joint federal tax return, you can make a full Roth contribution if your income is $183,000 or less. Your contribution is phased out if your income is between $183,000 and $193,000, and you can’t contribute at all if your income is $193,000 or more. And if you’re married filing separately, your contribution phases out with any income over $0, and you can’t contribute at all if your income is $10,000 or more.

Even if you can’t make an annual contribution to a Roth IRA because of the income limits, there’s an easy workaround. If you haven’t yet reached age 70½, you can simply make a nondeductible contribution to a traditional IRA, and then immediately convert that traditional IRA to a Roth IRA. Keep in mind, however, that you’ll need to aggregate all traditional IRAs and SEP/SIMPLE IRAs you own–other than IRAs you’ve inherited–when you calculate the taxable portion of your conversion. (This is sometimes called a “back-door” Roth IRA.)

Finally, keep in mind that if you make a contribution to a Roth IRA for 2015–no matter how small–by your tax return due date, and this is your first Roth IRA contribution, your five-year holding period for identifying qualified distributions from all your Roth IRAs (other than inherited accounts) will start on January 1, 2015.

 

The foregoing is provided for information purposes only.  It is not intended or designed to provide legal, accounting, tax, investment or other professional advice.  Such advice requires consideration of individual circumstances.  Before any action is taken based upon this information, it is essential that competent, individual, professional advice be obtained.  JAS Financial Services, LLC is not responsible for any modifications made to this material, or for the accuracy of information provided by other sources.

 

5
Jan

A helpful list for investors

It seems that everyone has a list on almost every topic, especially at year-end and the start of a new year.   I sometimes wonder what to do with this information.  Anna Prior’s Jan. 2, 2015 New York Times article, “The 15 Numbers Every Investor Needs to Know” is an exception.  It provides an approach to planning.  Following is a condensed discussion of the article:

  • Know what allocation of stocks, bonds and cash is appropriate for you.  Among the many factors to consider are: your financial goals, the value of your current investments, your health, your age, and your ability to withstand a drop in the value of your investments.
  • Take advantage of your ability to contribute to your employers’ 401(k) retirement plan, if applicable, for your situation.  The 2015 maximum contribution is $18,000 for a pretax traditional 401(k) plan and after-tax Roth 401(k) plan.  Those 50 or older can contribute an additional $6,000.  Understand the requirements and impact of taking distributions from your retirement plans.
  • Be familiar with the general valuations of stocks.  This will help you gage your investment risk.  Compare the average price/earnings (PE) ratio of stocks to the current PE.  The S&P 500 is commonly used as a proxy for the stock market.
  • Some consider bonds as a source of safety for investors.  It is difficult to predict how bonds will perform in the short-term.  The yield on the 10-year Treasury note will give you an indication of what the yield on bonds will be in the next 10 years or so.
  • High investment costs will reduce your returns  The expense ratios of your funds can be found in the fund prospectus, the website of the fund company and other media sources.
  • Be aware of your adjusted gross income (AGI).  This is the amount at the bottom of page one of you individual U.S income tax return.  The AGI will determine if other taxes or limitations will apply to you.  Examples are the 3.8% surtax on investment income, Medicare Part B & D premiums, deduction of some retirement plans, and some itemized deductions.
  • Estate-tax exemption of the states are often lower than the U.S. estate exemption.  This must be considered  in your planing for your family, heirs and charitable entities.
  • The amount of your essential and discretionary costs should be reviewed periodically.  This is important for: retirement planning, insurance planning and maintaining an adequate reserve fund for the unexpected and untimely expenditures.
  • Understand your health-care expenses.  This is need for; insurance planning, retirement planning and maintaining an adequate reserve fund.
  • Be aware of the difference between replacement cost and fair market value.  The difference to rebuilding a home can vary from what the home would sell for.  Replacing the contents of you home may be more than the fair market of the items.
  • The difference between owning and renting a home can have a major impact on your cash flow and quality of life.  The impact maybe more significant  when buying a first home and when retiring.
  • How long you are likely to live has a significant impact on your investment planning and cash flow planning.
  • Your approach to borrowing and repaying loans impacts your cash flow planning, investment planning and retirement planning.
  • Be aware of current and anticipated mortgage rates.  These impact planning relating to refinancing and debt repayment (cash flow planning).

There are many moving factors in planning.  An understanding of the parts and the alternatives are essential to a successful plan.

 

 

16
Jul

Reaching Your Goals

Gregory Karp, in his “Spending Smart” column “Money maxims: What dads can tell grads”, June 1, 2014 Chicago Tribune is the incentive for this blog.
Money can be saved or spent. How you handle money will have a significant impact on happiness and future financial well being. Studies relating to finances have increased in the last 15 years. Each year there seem to be more studies. Studies on happiness conclude that people are happier when they spend money on experiences rather than things. Other studies find that most people’s happiness increase as their income increases, up to about $70,000. Studies about retirement have found that the most important thing that anyone can do to reach their retirement living expenses is to save.
Saving is hard to do. Spending must be limited to available income. For most people, living within their income does not mean complete denial. It does require selectivity in the timing and amount of splurges.

Good daily spending habits are important. We have more control over daily spending habits than large items. Minimizing unnecessary and/or unwise expenditures will reduce many items that reduce the amount that can be saved on a regular basis. Most people give larger expenditures, such as homes and cars, significant thought and deliberation. They should also do the same for daily expenditures.

There are also studies that show that we should imagine ourselves in retirement. Aging Booth is an app that will show what you might look like when you age. You may have more incentive to save for that person. Contributing to a 401(k) plans and capturing any employer match may seem more important. Having part of your pay direct deposited to an investment account may also seem like a good way to be kind to the older you.
Necessities and a reserve fund come first. The reserve fund provides a cushion for the frequent unexpected expenditures. Preretirement six months of living expenses is generally recommended. After retirement, a minimum of living expenses after reoccurring income (like social security) for a year is recommended.

The sooner a saving program is started the less required on a periodic basis. To determine how much to save, you need to set financial goals. Your progress should be monitored, at least monthly; more frequently is better. Without knowing the future, your circumstance will change from what you originally projected.

12
Mar

What priority do you place on your retirement?

The New York Times Feb. 28, 2014 article, “Save for Retirement First, the Children’s Education Second”, applies to other financial goals also.  Two critical financial planning steps are to identify your financial goals and determine the priority of each.  The cost of each goal and when you want to achieve the goal are also needed.

One objective in financial planning is to determine how much is needed to achieve your goals.  Saving is almost always the way to have the funds needed.    The longer you wait to start to save for financial goals, the harder it is to achieve.  That is because more needs to be saved each year.   

The challenge to be able to save for retirement becomes more difficult as the number of goals increase.    You can borrow for some goals.   Borrowing for retirement is generally not an alternative.  Financing goals before retirement may decrease the ability to borrow in the future and increases future cash needs. 

Children’s education, helping a child with the purchase of a home, helping children with their loans could reduce the amounts needed to maintain a comfortable retirement. 

Possibly the expenses can be reduced.   Attending local and in-state colleges are generally less expensive than private colleges.  Having the children take out student loans also reduces the amount the parents will have to pay. 

Contributing less into qualified retirement plans, including IRAs, (Plans) and borrowing from Plans reduces the amount that can be saved for retirement.  Contributing to Plans allows the funds to grow free of annual income tax.  This allows the income and growth to grow faster in Plans.  Borrowing from a Plan reduces the potential return on the amount in the Plan.  If the interest rate charged by the Plan is less than the amount a financial institution would charge, the amount of income in the Plan will be reduced. 

A reserve account for the unexpected and emergencies should be given a very high priority.  Without reserves, these types of expenditures could require the liquidation of investment when their values are low. 

There are unintended consequences of not saving for retirement first.  Your children may need to support their parents in retirement.  A child may need to give up a job to care for a parent if the funds are not available for health care.

Set your priorities for yourself first.  Any excess can be left to your heirs.
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